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The Green ITS research program will provide advanced solutions to the technological barriers currently impeding widespread adoption of low-to-zero emission intelligent electric cars. A detailed overview of Green ITS timeframes and milestones are provided in the table below.

Research Milestones

Theme 1: Next-Generation Electric Vehicles

Theme 2: Intelligent Vehicles and Highways

Theme 3: Enabling Electric Highways

Commercialization Milestones



Research Milestone Deliverable Timeline Impact
Theme 1: Next-Generation Electric Vehicles
Electric Energy Storage Systems Development of hybrid batteries to improve energy capacity and density
  1. Theoretical analysis, modelling, optimization, and simulation of a hybrid battery
Years 2-3
  1. Preliminary experimental analysis
Year 3
  1. Prototyping, testing and system integration
Year 4-5
Batteries in-line monitoring and diagnosis
The batteries in-line monitoring and diagnosis will improve the batteries life span and also will reduce the batteries charging time and frequency.
  1. Study and identification of parameters indicating batteries' health
Year 1
  1. Design and analysis of MEMS devices for sensing batteries health indicators
Year 2
  1. Prototyping and testing
Year 2 -3
Batteries life prediction and degradation modelling
Batteries tend to depredate over time and it is important to predict this in vehicles both from safety and reliability aspects.
  1. Simulation using Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit
Year 1
  1. Hardware - and software-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation analysis
Years 1-2
  1. Development of batteries degradation models
Year 2
  1. Experimental validation of degradation models
Year 3-4
  1. Implementation and validation with prototyping vehicles
Year 4-5
Thermal management of power storage systems
Heat and temperature have detrimental effect on the batteries life span and health. This will improve the overall efficiency and operation of batteries.
  1. Characterization and feasibility analysis of battery cooling alternatives
Year 2
  1. Modelling and experimental studies and validation
Year 2-3
  1. Integration of thermal management for electric vehicles
Year 3-4
Electric storage charging control systems
There are several levels of battery charging that are used in electric vehicles. They all need a reliable and efficient control system. The research will improve the existing charging techniques.
  1. Battery modelling including power storage system dynamics
Year 1-2
  1. Development of charging control, optimization and simulation
Year 2-3
  1. Small scaled experimental studies and testing of charging control systems
Year 2-3
  1. Full scaled implementation and testing
Year 4-5



Vehicle Stability and Control

Analysis of vehicle dynamics, stability and control characteristics
Arrive at the model of electric vehicles to develop and improve EV stability and safety
  1. Theoretical and simulation analysis of electric vehicle dynamics considering different chassis layouts
Years 1-2
  1. Develop full chassis control for EV vehicles
Year 3
  1. Hardware in the loop simulation and evaluation
Year 3-4
  1. Implementation on an electric vehicle and testing
Year 4-5
Next generation vehicle suspension systems
Develop suspension systems for electric vehicles with in-wheel motors to reduce damages to motors while improving passenger comfort and vehicle handling
  1. Design, Modelling and simulation analyses of suspension systems for EV's with in-wheel motors
Years 1-2
  1. Hardware-in-the-loop analyses of EV's with in-wheel motors
Year 3
  1. Implementation of the concept in a vehicle
Year 3-5
Vehicle control system integration
Integrate all means of vehicle control to improve safety and stability
  1. Development of EV stability control
Year 1-2
  1. Hardware-in-the-loop evaluation of EV's control system
Year 2-3
  1. Control system integration into an EV
Year 3-4
  1. Experimental analyses and road tests evaluation at industry partner's test facilities
Year 4-5


Modelling and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

Driver characteristics identification and modelling of driver-vehicle system
Incorporate driver model into vehicle model for better and more accurate vehicle response
  1. Model development of driver driving and control characteristics
Years 1-2
  1. Simulation and hardware-in-the-loop experimental analysis of driver driving and control characteristics
Year 2-3
Development of different levels of vehicle system models
Model subsystems and verify them for design optimization
  1. Development of EV subsystems
Year 1-2
  1. Development of high fidelity and flexible models of electric vehicles
Year 2-3
  1. Validation of the models using experimental data
Year 3-4
Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO)
Improve overall vehicle efficiency and performance using MDO
  1. Investigation and development of a MDO technique for electric vehicles
Year 2
  1. Integration of MDO technique(s) into the comprehensive vehicle simulation platform
Year 3
  1. Analyses and validation of the MDO technique(s)
Year 4-5



Theme 2: Intelligent Vehicles and Highways

Vehicle Communications

MultihopWAVE
Enabling and improving infrastructure needed for vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to infrastructure communication
  1. Electromagnetic simulation of road-side-car radio-wave propagation and overall design of multi-beam phased-array system for road-side transceiver
Year 1-2
  1. Analysis of the system and using the conventional simulation platforms and the real data collected at the ITS centre at the University of Toronto
Year 3-4
  1. Integration of the array system with the beam-processor, test, and modifications
Year 4-5
MeshWAVE
Enabling and improving vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to infrastructure communication
  1. Forming and maintaining ad hoc networks among vehicles given traffic patterns, road conditions, and communication data
Year 1
  1. Selecting the best repetition patterns for packet transmission when joining a cluster
Year 2-3
  1. Mobile car-to-car and car-to-roadside test, and design modification
Year 4-5
  1. Building the system on DSRC devices and road tests
Year 4-5



collaborative Driving

Perception and network data fusion
Reduce sensors errors to improve collaborative driving
  1. Develop on-board networked data fusion algorithm for state estimation using GPS, odometry, communication
Year 1
  1. Demonstrate networked data fusion on multi-vehicle testbed
Year 2-3
  1. Incorporate additional sensors into network data fusion algorithm
Year 3-5
  1. Evaluate sensor and estimation reliability on testbed
Year 4-5
Guidance and control
Improve vehicle transportation through vehicle intelligence and sensors
  1. Adaptive cruise control vehicle following using network data
Year 1-2
  1. Steering augmentation and lane following using network data
Year 3-4
  1. Emergency communication and rapid response braking
Year 3-5
Coordination
Identify and direct platoon in collaborative driving
  1. Develop algorithms for loose platooning
Year 1-2
  1. Demonstrate real-time intelligent navigation and vehicle routing with network traffic flow data
Year 3-4
  1. Develop network reliant safe spacing and platooning algorithms in dedicated lanes
Year 3-5
  1. Safe exit and entry guidance strategies on dedicated intelligent lanes
Year 4-5
Human machine interface
Develop driver information display to reduce distraction while necessary information is presented
  1. Analysis of driver information processing for baseline establishment
Year 1
  1. Develop first prototype specification of Augmented Driver Information System (ADIS)
Year 1-2
  1. Extension of ADIS and analysis of driver information processing loads for each new collaborative driving initiative
Year 2-5
Embedded software design
Develop methods to identify software bugs automatically to improve reliability while reducing development time
  1. Develop real-time code base for implementation of collaborative driving concepts on testbed vehicles
Year 1-2
  1. Create ADIS software with certifiable timing and reliability
Year 2-3
  1. Develop rigorous verification procedures for implementation of new software features
Year 2-5



Traffic modelling
Evaluate traffic flow and throughputs on highways with conventional and intelligent vehicles
  1. Develop models of intelligent vehicles and highways for traffic modelling and simulation
Year 1-2
  1. Complete system evaluations
Year 2-3
  1. Analysis of highways throughputs with intelligent vehicles
Year 3-4
  1. Analysis of the effects of intelligent vehicles and highways on Ontario road infrastructure planning
Year 4-5



Theme 3: Enabling Electric Highways

Electricity Grid

The effect of EV penetration on the generation mix and capacity
Develop models to predict the effects of EV on power generation and distribution
  1. Development of generation planning models for Ontario
Years 1-2
  1. Study the effect of EV on generation based on developed models
Year 3-5
EVs as energy storage for wind and solar power
Evaluate the possibility of Evs in storing energy
  1. Development of wind and solar power models for Ontario
Years 1- 2
  1. Study the feasibility of and issues associated with EV as energy storage
Year 3
  1. Study the effect of EV energy storage based on developed models
Year 4-5
The impact of EV loads on the transmission system
Determine and predict the impact of EVs on electricity transmission systems and their planning for future expansion
  1. Development of transmission system models for Ontario
Years 1-2
  1. Study the effect of EV on the transmission system on developed models
Year 3-5
Long-term transmission system expansion
Determine and predict the impact of EVs on electricity transmission systems and their planning for future expansion
  1. Development of transmission system planning models for Ontario
Years 1-2
  1. Study the effect of EV on the transmission system planning on developed models

Year 3-5
Effect on distribution system feeders
Determine and predict the impact of EVs on electricity transmission systems and their planning for future expansion
  1. Development of distribution system models for various Ontario regions
Years 1-2
  1. Study the effect of EV on distribution feeders based on developed models
Year 3-4
  1. Study of the effect of actual EVs on feeder loading and voltage profiles at Hydro One and Burlington Hydro networks
Year 4-5
Distribution feeder and substation planning
Determine and predict the impact of EVs on electricity transmission systems and their planning for future expansion
  1. Development of distribution system planning models
Years 1-2
  1. Study the effect of EV on distribution system planning based on developed models
Year 3-4
  1. Application of studies to Hydro One and Burlington Hydro networks
Year 4-5
Interfacing of onboard battery chargers with the grid
Develop battery charger models and effects of EVs charging on the grid
  1. Development of battery charger models
Years 1-2
  1. Development of grid models for charging studies
Year 2
  1. Study of effect of power and voltage quality of various charging devices
Year 3-4
  1. Studies of actual EV chargers on Hydro One and Burlington Hydro networks
Year 4-5
  1. Development, design and testing of new battery chargers
Year 3-5
"Smart" charging strategies and technologies
Develop intelligent charging systems to reduce the effects of EVs charging on the grid
  1. Study of existent and proposed charging strategies and technologies in the context of Ontario
Years 1-2
  1. Development, design and testing of new intelligent charging strategies and technologies
Year 3-4
  1. Application and study of existent and proposed charging strategies and technologies on Hydro One and Burlington Hydro networks


Year 4-5
Integration of EVs as part of distributed generation resources (V2G technologies)
Study EVs batteries as distributed generation sources
  1. Develop DG models, considering frequency and voltage controls for microgrids
Years 1-2
  1. Study the effect of V2G on microgrids in Ontario
Year 3-5
EV metering and retail pricing issues

  1. Study of existent tariffs and connection charges
Years 1-3
  1. Study of metering location, identification, communications and net metering
Year 2-3
  1. Propose and study new tariffs and metering strategies and technologies in the context of Hydro One and Burlington Hydro networks
Year 4-5



Battery Charging and Automated Battery Switch Stations

Switchable Batteries and vehicle design
Study and develop systems for battery switch stations
  1. Study switchable batteries and their effects on chassis design
Years 1-3
  1. Study the effects of switchable batteries in vehicle chassis design
Years 2-3
Urban planning, power generation, and power grid
Study and plan for location and frequency of battery switching stations
In-Transit Charging

Power electronics
Study and develop systems for safe in-transit charging
  1. Develop power electronics installed in electric cars for safe and free-spark engagement and disengagement
Year 3
  1. Optimize cost and weight for automotive applications
Year 3
  1. Hardware in the loop testing and evaluation
Year 3-4
  1. Scaled-down Implementation and testing
Year 4-5
In-transit system design
Design of mechanical systems for in-transit charging eliminating range limitation in EVs
  1. Study and design of retractable conductors
Year 2-3
  1. Study and design of contact pads for minimizing friction and electrical resistance
Year 2-3
  1. Scaled-down prototyping and testing of conductors and contact pads
Year 3-4
Commercialization Milestones Deliverable Timeline Notes
  1. Establish a commercialization committee with members from industrial partners, University of Waterloo Intellectual Properties Management Group, and WatCAR
Year 1
  1. Regular meeting of WatCAR staff with GITS investigators for identifying potential technologies for commercialization
Year 2-5 There are several areas that have significant potential to yield new IPs. These include: EVs holistic control systems, collaborative driving, in-transit charging, on-line battery monitoring, battery charging systems, and hybrid batteries. For each project it is hard to predict the number or nature of IPs. The regular meeting are used to identify new IPs and help GITS researchers in protecting and commercializing the new findings.
  1. Generate bi-annual review report for the progress and results achieved in GITS projects and provide a copy to the sponsoring companies for review (non-confidential information for general distribution)
Year 2-5
  1. Bi-annual meeting of commercialization committee to review applications for prototyping, market analysis, and provisional patent funding.
Note: GITS has considered a $40k per year for the costs of market analysis, prototyping, and provisional patent costs
Year 2-5 The $40k budget will be used for the cost of provisional patents and further development to fast track technology transfer
  1. File provisional patent(s) for technologies developed in GITS projects and approved by commercialization committee
Year 2-5
  1. Follow up with GITS researchers whose technologies have been filed for provisional patents or prototyping for filing full patent, licensing, establishing start-up company and fund raising. WatCAR will facilitate the connection between the researchers and IPMG.